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South African Yearbook of International Law


This article examines the multiple layers at which international law now functions--the international, national, and sub-national. It identifies both public and private institutions and practices that have emerged to carry out international law's normative objectives. It ends with a call to expand the formal structure of international law to include the realities of a disaggregated state, a non-hierarchical system of governance, and a transnational political space.

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