Document Type

Article

Publication Year

2006

Journal Title

Review of Litigation

Abstract

This article argues two related propositions. First, if Congress were to eliminate all funding for lower federal courts, its constitutional authority to regulate those courts would become as meaningless as the empty courthouses. Second, Congress breaches its duty to furnish a forum at a point short of full defunding, and with that breach, Congress's regulatory power over private civil disputes otherwise litigable in state courts--preempted and removable state law claims--becomes constitutionally invalid. The first fact setting of full defunding is hypothetical; the second has been underway for several years.

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