Document Type


Publication Date


Journal Title

New York University Environmental Law Journal




In the U.S. we have reached the point where further reductions in per-mile emissions from individual mobile sources of criteria pollutants will be both tiny and expensive. In addition, as population grows, total mobile source emissions in developed countries are likely to increase as our ability to engineer reductions on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis reaches its technological limit and is overwhelmed by the rising numbers of miles driven. Mobile source emissions world-wide will climb as greater wealth in the developing world fuels the demand for mobility. This article examines the demand for transportation and the regulation of transportation fuels and then assesses the possible steps for future regulation. As to pollutants where the issue is total loading in the atmosphere (e.g., CO2), the author argues that it will be cheaper and more effective to buy offsets in the developing world than to attempt to reduce emissions only within the developed world. The author further argues for incentives to induce changes in individual driver behavior in place of command and control measures and for changing anti-trust regulation to allow for tighter integration of fuels and engines to reduce mobile source emissions. Even with these measures, however, the author argues that stationary source regulation is going to have to pick up a larger portion of future gains in air quality.

First Page


Volume Number



New York University School of Law

File Type


Included in

Law Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.